Friday, April 3, 2015

Changes Are A Comin' to the D. A. Troutman Family

During the decade between 1900 and 1910, my paternal great-grandparents Daniel A. and America Troutman’s family experienced upheaval. Following a roving trend set by Daniel himself when he left North Carolina, two of their children moved to Missouri.

In 1910, their firstborn, Laura Estelle and her husband W. T. Worley lived in Dry Creek, Howell County, Missouri.[1] Stelle, as she preferred to be called, had married William Tell Worley, son of Francis W. and Eliza (Meadows) Worley,[2] on 16 November 1991 when she was 21 years old. Tell was 36. This age difference may have been the cause of problems between them couple in later years. Stelle and Tell had five children born in Virginia before they moved to Missouri: Carl J., born October 1893[3]; Harvey Lee, born and died, 1896[4]; Dale Edward, born June 1899[5]; Anna Leona, born June 1902[6]; and Ethel O., born September 1907.[7]

Not to brush off too easily the death of little Harvey Lee, the sadness of his loss surely followed the family for many years. His little tombstone in the Rich Valley Presbyterian Church Cemetery bears witness to his short life.

Harvey Lee Worley's tombstone, Rich Valley Presbyterian Church. Courtesy of Find A Grave contributor, James Archer.
The birth date their youngest child Ethel places their move between September 1907 and the date of the census, 15 April 1910.

Photo of Tell and Stelle Worley and their children, l. to r.: Dale, Ethel, Leona, and Carl. This was probably taken in Virginia just before they left for Missouri, perhaps about 1909.
That same year, Daniel and America’s ninth child, Clint Troutman was living in Audraine County Missouri with his new bride, Mary Ann, formerly Waggoner.[8] In an earlier blog titled “Clint and Mary’s Romance,” I related the story of their courtship.  Mary’s entire family had moved to Missouri prior to Clint’s exit from Virginia. Mary’s two oldest brothers had even gone further west to the state of Washington.

What had drawn all of them away from Virginia? I’m curious. I wondered whether western states, especially Missouri, had advertised in Virginia newspapers, maybe opportunities for land or something such as that, so I perused several copies of Marion, Virginia, newspapers between 1900 and 1910. No sign of ads for parts west. No announcements of lands open for homesteading.[9] I did notice a difference between 1898-1900 and 1903-1908, however, in the number of ads for rail traffic to transport people to western states. The Marion News was advertising train service to points west, including St. Louis, Missouri.[10] The ads increased in size as the decade progressed.

Marion News, 15 Dec. 1905, p. 4.
An ad in 1907 posted fees to the West Coast from St. Louis.[11] Did Mary’s brothers see this one?

Marion News, 01 March 1907, p. 2.
 In the second decade of the 20th Century, more family members and extended family members would follow Stelle and Clint and to Missouri, on to Nebraska, and some would go even further westward.

[1] 1910 U. S. census, Dry Creek, Howell County, Missouri, population schedule, enumeration district [ED] 78, p. 10-A, dwelling 205, family 207, W. T. Worley family; digital image ( : accessed 24 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 784.
[2] 1880 U.S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 84, p. 54 (penned), dwelling 480, family 510, Francis W. Worley family; digital image, ( : accessed 24 March 2015); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm publication T9, roll 1390.
[3] 1900 U. S. census, Broadford, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, enumeration district [ED] 84, sheet 10-A, dwelling 166, family 167, Tell Worley household, son Carl; digital image ( : accessed 3 April 2015); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728.
[4] Virginia Deaths and Burials Index, 1853-1917, Harrie Lee Worley, database ( : accessed 03 March 2015). Also Find A Grave, database and images ( : accessed 03 March 2015), photograph, memorial page for Harvey Lee Worley (1896-1896), Find A Grave memorial no. # 72043823, Rich Valley Presbyterian Church cemetery, Rich Valley, Viginia; photographs contributed by James Archer.
[5] 1900 U. S. census, Broadford, Smyth Co., Va., pop. sched., ED 84, sheet 10-A, dwell. 166, fam. 167, Tell Worley household, son Dale E.; digital image ( : accessed 3 Apr. 2015); NARA micro. pub. T623, roll 1728.
[6] 1910 U. S. census, Dry Creek, Howell Co., Mo., pop. sched., ED 78, p. 10-A, dwell. 205, fam. 207, W. T. Worley, daughter Lona; digital image ( : accessed 24 Mar. 2015); NARA micro. pub. T624, roll 784. Also, Social Security Administration, “U.S. Social Security Death Index,” database, ( : accessed 04 March 2015); entry for Leona A. Brewer, 1989, SS no. 489-38-2548.
[7] 1910 U. S. census, Dry Creek, Howell Co., Mo., pop. sched., ED 78, p. 10-A, dwell. 205, fam. 207, W. T. Worley, daughter Ethel; digital image ( : accessed 24 Mar. 2015); NARA micro. pub. T624, roll 784.
[8] 1910 U. S. census, Wilson, Audraine County, Missouri, population schedule, enumeration district [ED] 18, p. 4-B, dwelling 65, family 66, Clinton Troutman; digital image ( : accessed 28 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 767.
[9] Smyth Bland Regional Library > S-B Digital Collections > Smyth County Newspapers > Marion News  > Search for “Missouri”  > 1900-11-16 and 1900-02-23 ( : accessed 20 February 2015). No ads for railroads nor western states in these issues. Marion News, issue 1903-08-21 contains a small railroad ad.
[10] Smyth Bland Regional Library > S-B Digital Collections > Smyth County Newspapers > Marion News  > Search for “Missouri”  > Volume 16, issue 50, 1905-12-15 > see advertisement, page 4. ( : accessed 20 February 2015).
[11] Smyth Bland Regional Library > S-B Digital Collections > Smyth County Newspapers > Marion News  > Search for: “Missouri”  >  1907-03-01 > see advertisement, page 2. ( : accessed 30 March 2015).

Wednesday, March 18, 2015

D. A. Troutman at Home, 1900.

On 1 June 1900, Daniel A. Troutman was 64 years old.[1] He had 18 more years to live. In photos, he sports a full white beard, a deeply receding hairline, and possibly a comb-over. His handsome face looks a little sad, yet serene. America at 55 (census says 53) was petite with thin hair drawn starkly back from her oval face, not particularly comely. She gazes steadily at the camera, her lips slightly parted as if about to say something. She would live another 28 years. 
Daniel Absolum Troutman, c. 1900.

America Ann Pratt Troutman, c. 1900.
At this time, they had seven living children and five grandchildren: Carl, age 7; Harvey Lee, age 4; and Dale Edward, age 1, children of Estelle and Tell Worley[2]; Hallie Mae, age 3, and Eula Lee, age one month, children of Bud and Jennie Troutman.[3] Daniel and America’s other children—James, age 19; Daniel, age 17; Daisy, age 16; Clint, age 13, and Lee Roy, age 11—still lived at home.[4]
America surrounded by three sons (l to r): James Henry, John William "Bud," and Clint, c. 1900-1903. Note two little girls in the background on right. Were they Bud's daughters, Hallie Mae and Eula Lee? If the picture was take in 1902 or '03, maybe so.
The census taker, Charles H. Pratt, nineteen-year-old son of America’s brother John Marion Pratt,[5] did a lousy job of recording names for his cousins’ family. America is “A. Alis,” Clint (Walter Clinton) is “Will C.” and Lee Roy is “L. Robert.” No wonder I had difficulty finding them in this census! He also recorded a few of their ages incorrectly. I wonder if Charles actually went to their house or if he just wrote what he thought.
Daniel owned his farm free of mortgage.  Was this the land that America’s parents deeded to her?
According to the Session minutes of The Rich Valley Presbyterian Church, recorded 12 May 1894, Daniel had been “examined as to [his] experimental acquaintance with religion—which examination proved satisfactory [he] on profession of faith in Christ, [was] admitted to the sealing ordinances of the Lords Supper.”[6] There is no such record for America’s church membership.[7] Interestingly, on a list of communicants accepted that day, an additional un-dated note beside Daniel’s name reads, “Joined the M. E. Church without letter of dismissal.”[8]
Riverside Methodist Church, Rich Valley, Virginia. Photo by Z. T. Noble, 16 June 2008. This church is on Long Hollow Road, not far from where the D. A. Troutman family lived before they moved to the mountain property deeded to America.
I have yet to examine the M. E. Church records; I’ve sent an inquiry but haven’t received a reply.

[1] 1900 U. S. census, Rich Valley, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broadford Precinct, enumeration district [ED] 84, sheet 1-B, dwelling 13, family 13, Dan Troutman family; digital image ( : accessed 11 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728.
[2] 1900 U. S. census, Rich Valley, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broadford Precinct, enumeration district [ED] 84, sheet 10-A, dwelling 166, family 167, Tell Worley family; digital image ( : accessed 11 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728.
[3] 1900 U. S. census, Rich Valley, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broadford Precinct, enumeration district [ED] 84, page 2-B, dwelling 34, family 34, William Troutman family; digital image ( : accessed 11 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728.
[4] 1900 U. S. census, Rich Valley, Smyth Co., VA, pop. sch., ED 84, p. 1-B, Dan Troutman family.
[5] 1900 U. S. census, Rich Valley, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broadford Precinct, enumeration district [ED] 84, page 4-A, dwelling 59, family 59, J. Marion Pratt family; digital image ( : accessed 11 March 2015); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728. For relationship to America Pratt, see 1860 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, 7 Mile Ford post office, population schedule, p. 68 (penned), dwelling 436, family 436, Nicholas Pratt family; digital image, ( : accessed 11 March 2015); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm publication M653, roll 1377.
[6] Rich Valley Presbyterian Church (Saltville, Virginia), “Minutes of Session, Vol. 3, 13 June 1836 – 31 March 1917,” page 61, entry 12 May 1894; photocopy in possession of author, from original at the church.
[7] Session Minutes were searched for all Troutman names, but America's was not found.
[8] Rich Valley Presbyterian Church (Saltville, Va.), “Minutes of Session, Vol. 3, 13 June 1836 – 31 March 1917,” page 207, entry 12 May 1894, Danl. A. Troutman.

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

The Old Troutman Place in Rich Valley, Many Returns

On a visit to the Troutman home place in the early 1950s, this is my father Verne Troutman and three of his children, Vance, Verna, and Regina. The man on the far left was the home owner at the time. This probably was taken by my mother, and I was likely hiding behind her skirts.

My dad, Verne Clinton Troutman, gets the credit for piquing my interest in family history. He loved to visit places historic to our family. One of those places was the home where his father, Clint Troutman, grew up, the home pictured in a previous post. When we made our annual trek from Nebraska to Virginia every summer to visit my mother’s parents in Saltville, Dad visited many of his relatives, as well. He also liked to take us to his father's childhood home in Rich Valley. One of the earliest pictures I have of Dad at the Troutman place was taken in about 1950.

Other memorable trips to the cabin included one in the 1970s with my cousin Judy and one a few years later in 1980 with cousin Ruth Ann, her husband Larry and daughters Laura, Melissa, and Michelle, and my husband Myron and children, Jay and Sarah. I wish I had photos of all those visits, non-blurry ones, anyway.

A few years after dad died in 1991, I began to wonder about the old place. Would I be able to find I find it without him? Years had passed since I had been there, by then at least 20. My mother was losing her eyesight and couldn't remember how to find it exactly, but one day, we set out to try. I remembered that Dad had driven east on the Valley Road past the Rich Valley Presbyterian Church. I remembered that the road we wanted was dirt or gravel, on the right, and dropped off the main road down a steep embankment, so I looked for that configuration. I remembered passing a spring and a big stately house with wrap around porch along the way. I remembered huge oak tree a stone fence.

View from the house of the big oak tree, 1980. I've been told there was at least one wedding beneath those branches.

 My mother and I soon spotted a familiar looking turn with a sharp drop. A sign said Crewey Rd. I turned. Everything looked right. We drove past a spring where water spread a wide circle over the ground and creasy greens grew fresh and abundant. We passed the big stately-looking house across a creek. Then I knew my mother and I were on the right road. 

We continued until we came to another house, a smaller one, which I thought at first was the Troutman home. Comparing it to my photos of the old house, I realized I was wrong. At this house, the road dead-ended at a gate. "No Hunting," a sign read. It didn't say no trespassing.

We were in the right place, but we would have to climb the gate and hike, we didn't know how far. Not wanting to leave my eighty-year-old mother alone in the car, however, I decided to come back later with my husband. At least, I knew how to find the place.

Later, my husband and I climbed over the gate and walked up the hill on a dirt path that used to be a road. Soon I saw the big oak and the tell-tale stone fence. We had found it! Now I would be able take cousins there, too.

The opportunity came in 2004. On their way from points west to the 100th reunion of the Troutman clan in Troutman, North Carolina, several cousins stopped in Saltville for a guided tour of Valley and the Troutman house. I was happy to oblige. We stopped at the Rich Valley Presbyterian Church cemetery to visit the graves of our great-grandparents and then drove on to the house. A steady, warm rain dampened our bodies that day but not our spirits. Dad would have loved it!
A little wet from the rain, Brent Troutman, great-great-grandson of D. A. and America Troutman stands on the crumbling porch of their home.

The old Troutman home place in 2004.

The stone fence.
 And and few years later, on a dry day,  I took my nephew. 
David C. Troutman, great-great-grandson of D. A. and America (Pratt) Troutman, about 2008.

Thursday, February 12, 2015

An Exciting Discovery: Andy and Martha Hays' Tombstone

Oh, what you can do with a little help from your friends!
Originally, I intended to write only one blog post about Andy Hays (or Hayes), but more information keeps popping up. The folks who contact me offering additional information on my subjects are part of the fun of blogging. My Find A Grave friend, Barry, searcher of nooks and crannies that don’t occur to me, alerted me to the gravesite of Andrew and Martha Hayes recently posted on Find A Grave. How cool is that?! I'm saving the best for last.
 On my own, I uncovered some long forgotten notes I took years ago, bits of information I had collected about Andy and Martha Hayes from various people, including my father, his sister Neville, and Rich Valley residents, Garland Lamie, and Ben Clark.
Lamie and Clark said that Andy delivered flour on his horse to a little country store in Rich Valley. According to Clark, Andy was "liked and respected by all. They [Andy and Martha] were plain people, good to everyone, never had a bad word to say about anyone."
Martha’s cooking was famous in the valley. She prepared the wedding supper for Clark's parents, he recalled. Aunt Neville remembered her father, Clint Troutman, telling about Martha giving him a delicious hot, buttered biscuit when he went to her house one day. His mouth was still watering at the thought of that biscuit.
Clark said that Andy and Martha attended the Presbyterian Church in Rich Valley, where, as was customary in those days, they sat in “a special pew” in the back. Indeed, I found an entry in the Rich Valley Presbyterian Church session minutes of 12 December 1897: “A. J. Hayes (col.) appeared before the Session, and was examined as to his experimental acquaintance with religion, which examination proved satisfactory, and he having made a profession of his faith in Christ, was admitted into the church.”[1]
Andy had a reputation for being a fine Christian man, my dad said. Jacob Myers, a magistrate in the area and my mother’s maternal grandfather, told Dad that he believed in Andy's word as truth in any situation.
Finally, Barry alerted me to recent Find A Grave memorial to Andy and Martha Hayes with a picture of their gravestone.[2] This is a treasure I thought I would never find.
Marker for the grave of Martha and Andrew Hayes, Shannon Cemetery, Adwolfe, Virginia. It reads, "At Rest: Hayes, Martha, 1860-1927; Andrew, 1858-[?]."
The photo taken by Find A Grave volunteer, Shannon Rogers Simpson, was posted on February 5. The cemetery where she found the stone is located near Adwolfe, Virginia. She notes that she is going to keep searching for the broken piece that contains Andrew’s death date.
That’s about it, for now, but you never know what might surface next.

[1] Minutes of the Session of the Presbyterian Church of Rich Valley, Virginia, Vol. 3, 13 June 1836-31 March 1918, p. 94: 1897, Dec. 12; Rich Valley Presbyterian Church, Saltville.
[2] Find A Grave, database and images ( : accessed 11 February 2015), photograph, memorial page for Andrew Hayes (1858-????), Find A Grave memorial no. # 142226635, citing Shannon Cemetery, Adwolfe, Virginia; photographs contributed by Shannon Simpson.

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Making Amends: More on Andy Hays

Forgive me, Folks, for I have sinned. I must confess that I’ve committed a genealogy sin of omission. I’m guilty of failing to do a “reasonably exhaustive search” on Andy Hays. For those of you not absorbed in the world the Genealogical Proof Standard and its number one tenet, the reasonably exhaustive search, you can Google the term and find many voices to explain it. Click here for one. Thanks to my Find A Grave buddy, Barry L. Seitz, I’ve been enlightened to other sources that I could and should have used for my post about Andy Hays. I’ll try to make amends.

In February of 1866, the Freedman’s Bureau took a count of men and women of color, former slaves who had never been allowed to legally marry. It’s called the Cohabitation Schedule. This schedule is the first time you will see the full names of former slaves. Here you can find the name of the male head of household, his age, his place of birth, his residence, his occupation, his last owner’s name and residence, his wife’s name and all of the same information for her, plus the names and ages of children in their home and the year they started cohabiting. It’s a goldmine document for anyone who wants to find slave ancestors—and I missed it.

On the schedule for Smyth County is this important entry regarding Andy Hays:

Thomas Hays, age 70; born in Wythe County; lives in Rich Valley, Va.; last owner, Jackson McCarty, from Rich Valley, Va. His wife is “Marie (dead),” no other information for her. His children: Marion, 8; Becca, 30; Mary, 24; and Andy, 10. Unfortunately, no year is listed for the start of Thomas’ and Marie’s cohabiting.[1]

The schedule says children, but I wonder. Given Thomas’ age, were Marion and Andy his children or grandchildren? Knowing Marie’s age when she died might help, but the schedule doesn’t cooperate.

The 1860 slave schedule shows that Enoch J. McCarty owned four slaves:[2]

Number of slaves

Based on the cohabitation list, these four slaves were most likely, Thomas Hays, Becca, Andy, and Marion. Where was Mary? She may have been living with another owner. Also, if Marie had been a McCarty slave, she was apparently already deceased in 1860.
Furthermore (now for my "ah, ha!" moment), Enoch Jackson McCarty’s wife was Laura Pratt,[3] sister to my great-grandmother, America Pratt Troutman.[4]  Andy was owned by a Pratt family member, after all—by a Pratt family member’s husband, that is! There was some truth to Dad’s story, after all.
But why the name Hays? Enoch Jackson McCarty’s mother’s maiden name was Mary (Polly) Hays. Could it be that Thomas Hays’ family was owned by Mary’s parents before Jackson McCarty bought them? Maybe, maybe not. Poring over the list of cohabitants, I notice that very few former slaves’ names were the same as their last owner, probably less than 5%. Maybe a white Hays slave owner is irrelevant.
Finally, why were Andy and his brother Marion living in the home of Jerome and Amanda Hays in 1870? Had Thomas died? What was their relationship to Jerome and Amanda? One can only speculate. Amanda or Jerome may have been another of Thomas’ children. They were not included in the 1866 Smyth County Cohabitation Schedule. More evidence is needed before a conclusion can be made. The exhaustive search goes on.

[1] Smyth County, Virginia, Register of Colored Persons Cohabiting Together as Husband and Wife, 1866, Feb 27; Virginia Cohabitation Registers, digital collections, Library of Virginia ( : accessed 26 January 2015).
[2] 1860 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, slave schedule, p. 6 (penned), number 16, Enoch J. McCarty owner, digital image ( :  accessed 26 January 2015); NARA, M432, no roll number.
[3] Kloski and McCarty Ancestors, Enoch Jackson McCarty; RootsWeb ( : accessed 26 January 2015).
[4] 1850 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, district 60, p. 357 (penned), dwelling 261, family 265, Nicholas Pratt; NARA microfilm publication, M432, roll 976.

Thursday, January 8, 2015

A Troutman Neighbor: Andy Hays

Of my dad’s many stories, one of his favorites focused on Andy Hayes and his wife Martha. Former slaves, “Uncle Andy” and “Aunt Martha,” as they were called, lived near the Daniel A. Troutman family. In fact, the story goes that Daniel gave Andy about 30 acres of land. As family stories often go, this one cannot be proved. No deed exists to confirm that Daniel deeded property to Andy Hays, free or otherwise.[1] However, when I bought my 1898 topographical map of Smyth County showing property owners, my eyes popped open when I saw the name A. Hays just a short distance up Walker Mountain from the name D. A. Troutman. So I wonder. Nonetheless, Andrew Hays did, indeed, purchase eleven acres in 1910 bordering his own property and that of James Clark, John Havens, and A. A. Troutman from Thomas Campbell,[2] another neighbor.
In Dad’s picture collection passed to him from his father, he had a photo of Andy Hays.
Andy and Martha seem to have been well liked by the people of Rich Valley. Andy farmed and Martha made cakes and sold them. She was famous for her cakes.
According to the story, Andy had belonged to the Pratt family before the Civil War, maybe to John Marion Pratt, America’s brother who served the Confederacy in the 50th Virginia.[3] However, I have found no evidence that any members of the Pratt family of Smyth County, Virginia, owned slaves.[4] I did, however, find a slave owner named Calvin M. Hays, and in 1860, one of his slaves was a male child, age 1.[5] The age does not match Andy’s birth date of 1856, but one or the other record could be incorrect, as they often are. Or Andy could have been located somewhere else.

Slave Schedule, 1860, Smyth County, Virginia, showing Calvin M. Hays and slaves.
 Slave Schedule, 1850 shows two Hays slave owners: James Hays was Calvin Hays’ father.[6]
Slave Schedule, 1850, Smyth County, Virginia, shows Hays slave owners and slaves.
In 1870, a young Andrew Hays, age 14, race B, lived in the vicinity of Broad Ford with Jerome Hays, age 28, and Amanda Hays, age 38. He is the oldest of four children including Marion, age 12; Jerome, age 9; and Louisa, age 3.[7] The 1870 census does not specify relationship to head of household, but Jerome and Amanda are likely Andy’s parents, or at least Amanda is Andy's mother. 

1870 Smyth County census showing the household of Jerome and Amanda Hays.
Jerome and Amanda had another child, Mary, born 15 April 1866 and died 28 May 1866.[8]
Amanda could possibly be the 28 year old female slave owned by Calvin M. Hays in the 1860 Slave Schedule, but if Jerome is her husband, there is no male slave, age 18, listed in the slave schedule who could be his counterpart. Always, the possibility exists that the age was incorrectly recorded in the census. I cannot find any members of this Hays family in the 1880 census of Smyth County.[9] Amanda Hays died in 1872[10] when Andy was just 16 years old, so her death may have contributed to the family’s absence from the 1880 census. The children could have been living with relatives, and Jerome may have gone elsewhere to find work.
In 1900 at age 43, Andy owned his farm free of mortgage. Andy and Martha had been married 24 years, yet Martha had never born children. A 17-year-old nephew named Edward Hays lived with them, apparently helping with the farm work. Andy could neither read nor write, but Martha and Edward could.[11]
1900 census excerpt showing Andy Hays, M. Alice Hays, and Edward Hays:
Excerpt from 1900 census of Smyth County, Virginia, showing Andy Hays' household.
In 1910, Andy and Martha lived in Ellendale, Smyth County, and Andy operated his own farm.[12] They lived next to Daniel A. Troutman’s farm.[13] After that year, I cannot find Andy and Martha in the Smyth County census, so I do not know their death dates.
1910 census showing Andrew and Martha Hays and their neighbors, Daniel Troutman and Thomas Campbell.
Why this man was important enough for my grandfather to keep a picture and tell his children about him has always intrigued me, so I have attempted to uncover the mystery. As always, the past cannot be completely fathomed, but every remembered relationship tells a little of the story.

© 2014, Z. T. Noble

[1] A search of Smyth County deed books reveals no exchange of property between Daniel A. Troutman and Andy Hays, nor between America Troutman and Andy Hays, for America was the owner of the Troutman land (see previous blog post).
[2] Smyth County, Virginia, Deed Book 35, p. 410, T. J. Campbell, Rilda Campbell, Eli Campbell, and Sallie Campbell to Andrew Hays, 4 March 1910, Smyth County Courthouse, Marion.
[3] “U. S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865,” John M. Pratt, database ( : accessed 12 December 2014).
[4] A search of both the 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules for Smyth County, Virginia, show no Pratt slaveholders.
[5] 1860 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, slave schedule, district 60, p. 363, Calvin M. Hays owner, digital image ( :  accessed 12 December 2014); NARA, M432.
[6] Smyth County, Viginia, Deed Book, 5, p. 102, estate of James Hays, 1857; Smyth County Courthouse, Marion.
[7] 1870 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broad Ford Post Office, p. 61 (penned), dwelling 404, family 404, Andrew Hays; digital image, ( : accessed 12 Dec. 2014) citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm publication M593, roll 1679.
[8] Virginia Deaths and Burials Index, 1853-1917, Mary Hays, database ( : accessed 8 January 2015), 28 May 1866.
[9] Just to make sure that the transcriber didn’t make a mistake, I scanned through the entire census of Smyth County, all districts, looking for any member of the Jerome Hays family. They are not to be found.
[10] Virginia Deaths and Burials Index, 1853-1917, Amanda Hays, database ( : accessed 8 January 2015), 3 May 1872. This document names Jerome Hays as Amanda’s husband.
[11] 1900 U. S. census, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, Broadford Precinct, p. 110 (stamped), enumeration district [ED] 84, sheet 1-A, dwelling 9, family 9, Andy Hays; digital image ( : accessed 3 December 2014); NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1728. In this census, the Dan Troutman family is enumerated on the next page as family number 13.
[12] 1910 U. S. census, Ellendale, Smyth County, Virginia, population schedule, enumeration district [ED] 89, p. 1-B, dwelling 15, family 15, Andrew Hays; digital image ( : accessed 12 December 2014); NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 1649.
[13] The Daniel Troutman family was enumerated on the same page in this census as family number 14.